The epidermis is interrupted by stomata each consisting of a pore flanked by two guard cells.
The mesophyll is sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis, made of cells specialized for photosynthesis. The palisade mesophyll are elongated cells on the upper part of the leaf. The spongy mesophyll is loosely arranged, allowing gases to circulate.
Veins are the leaf's vascular tissue; each vein is enclosed by a protective bundle sheath.