- Organismal ecology
studies how an organism meets environmental challenges.
- Population ecology
focuses on factors affecting many individuals of a species live in an area.
- Community ecology
deals with the array of other species in an area.
- Ecosystem ecology
emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling among biotic and abiotic components.
- Landscape ecology
deals with arrays of ecosystems and how they are arranged in a region.
- Global ecology
examines the influence of energy and materials on organisms across the biosphere.