Chapter 25 Animations   Study Guide

Unit 4: Mechanisms of Evolution The History of Life on Earth Review
  1. A major tool biologists use to study early life on earth is the fossil record buried in layers of rock called .
  2. The 4.6 billion years of earth's history is divided into three geologic , which are further divided into , , and .
  3. Most of the major animal phyla appeared during the early period in what is known as the Explosion.
  4. Mammals are synapsids that belong to the group of vertebrates called .
  5. The movement of the Earth's due to continental has shaped the diversity of life on Earth. Animation.
  6. There have been several episodes of mass , but the extinct forms were replaced by others that evolved from the survivors; the trend has been an of diversity over time.
  7. The extinction of the dinosaurs may have led to the radiation of other species, such as mammals, which diversified to adapt to new now made available.

Chapter 26 Animations   Study Guide

Unit 5: The Evolutionary History of Diversity Phylogeny and The Tree of Life Review
  1. is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships of organisms, based on shared characters inherited from a common .
  2. Carolus Linnaeus introduced a system of , for classifying species in seven hierarchical categories (taxa).
  3. Phylogenetic relationships are shown as branching trees where each branch point represents the of two when they shared a common (homology).
    • similarity can be misleading due to evolution (analogy).
    • homologies that make use of computer programs to analyze segments can reveal many relationships not attainable by other methods.
  4. Shared ancestry and shared characters are drawn on a to show evolutionary relationships; this practice is called .
  5. A clade must be , and consists of the species and all its descendants;
  6. The tree of life is divided into three great clades called : (Monera), , and .
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