Chapter 34 Animations   Study Guide

Unit 5: The Evolutionary History of Diversity Vertebrates Review
  1. Vertebrates possess , and are a subphylum of phylum .
  2. Craniates are chordates that have a . (hagfishes ) are jawless marine craniates that have derived from the notochord, but no vertebrae.
  3. are craniates that have a , made of vertebrae.
  4. are vertebrates that have that evolved from skeletal supports of the pharyngeal clefts.
  5. include sharks and rays with a skeleton made of .
  6. are the bony fish with a endoskeleton.
  7. Tetrapods are gnathostomes that have limbs, and evolved from lobe-finned fish whose fins developed into limbs adapted for terrestrial life.
  8. have moist skin that complements lungs in exchange, and undergo from aquatic larva into a terrestrial adult.
    • There are orders: are salamanders, are frogs and toads, and are caecilians.
  9. Amniotes are that have an egg adapted for terrestrial life.
  10. Living reptiles include , , , , and .
  11. Mammalia are the only surviving clade of among the amniotes.
    • Monotremes are the only mammals that lay .
    • Marsupials are born early and complete embryonic development within a maternal pouch called .
    • Eutherians are mammals that complete their embryonic development within a , joined to the mother by the placenta.
  12. Primates have opposable adapted for , and include lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, and hominoids called .
  13. Hominin originated in about 6-7 million years ago. was an early hominin that walked upright.
    • The earliest species in our genus Homo was Homo ("handy man"), who made tools.
    • Homo was the first fully bipedal, large-brained hominin.
    • Homo was the first hominin to leave Africa.
    • Homo neanderthalensis became extinct a few thousand years after the arrival of humans (Homo ).
  14. Homo sapiens are hominoids with a large capable of making, symbolic thought and .
  15. We appeared in 160,000 years ago.
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