Chapter 36 Animations   Study Guide

Unit 6: Plant Form and Function Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants Review
  1. One adaptation of terrestrial plants is the system which allow some to grow to great heights.
  2. The selective of a plant cell's membrane regulates the movement of into and out of the cell, mediated by transport proteins.
  3. Proton create a hydrogen ion , setting up a membrane that can be harnessed to transport solutes by or .
  4. In the aquatic environment of a cell, the effects of give rise to potential that affect plant growth and transport.
  5. Intercellular transport involves 3 pathways: , , and .
  6. Water and minerals are absorbed through the of root tips, where root mycorrhizae increase the surface area.
  7. Photosynthesis results in , the loss of water vapor through of leaves. The diameter of the stoma is controlled by cells.
  8. Transpirational pull in the together with pressure produce a pressure differential that draws water from the into the leaf in a process called flow.
  9. Sugar is loaded into elements by and pathways.
  10. Sugar loading water potential and induces water intake at the source, initiating a flow of sap toward the sink.
    Review: Transport of Xylem Sap.
    Review: Translocation of Phloem Sap.

Chapter 37 Animations   Study Guide

Unit 6: Plant Form and Function Soil and Plant Nutrition Review
  1. Plants obtain the nutrients of water, minerals, and carbon dioxide from the environment.
  2. Nine of the essential elements are called since they are required in relatively large amounts.
  3. Lack of some minerals can lead to abnormal growth, which can be monitored by plants.
  4. Soil is composed of weathered of various sizes, along with decaying organic material called , arranged in vertical layers called .
  5. Soil minerals are made available to plants by exchange and can be depleted by precipitation.
  6. Nitrogen- Rhizobium bacteria, in symbiosis with plants, convert inorganic N2 in the atmosphere to nitrogenous minerals such as and that plants can absorb.
  7. Most plants also form , a symbiotic association of fungi and roots which can be two types.
    • In , the mycelium of the fungus forms a dense sheath over the surface of the root.
    • In , fungal hyphae extend into the root, forming .
  8. Unusual nutritional adaptations in plants include:
    • grow on another plant or other support, absorbing water and minerals from rain.
    • plants absorb sugars and minerals from their living hosts. Many species have roots that function as , nutrient-absorbing projections that enter the host plant.
    • plants are photosynthetic but obtain some and other minerals by digesting small animals.
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