Chapter 49 Animations   Study Guide

Unit 7: Animal Form and Function Nervous Systems Review
  1. All animals except sponges have some type of system.
  2. In vertebrates, the brain and spinal cord make up the nervous system (CNS), while nerves and ganglia make up the nervous system (PNS).
  3. The nervous system also contains several types of cells which provide various support functions.
  4. The spinal cord can mediate independently of the brain.
  5. The peripheral nervous system transmits information to and from the and regulates movement and the internal environment.
  6. The brain is organized into several regions: , , , and .
  7. The is divided into right and left hemispheres as well as four lobes.
  8. The nervous system exhibits neural : some synapses can be modified after birth, often in response to its own activity.

Chapter 50 Animations   Study Guide

Unit 7: Animal Form and Function Sensory and Motor Mechanisms Review
  1. Energy from a stimulus is detected at a sensory , and after and in a sensory pathway, produces of the stimulus in the CNS.
  2. There are several kinds of sensory receptors.
  3. In the human ear, vibrating objects create sound waves in the air that are detected by in the ear, which are perceived as sound of different pitches.
  4. The canals in the inner ear function in maintaining equilibrium.
  5. Chemoreceptor cells for (taste) are modified epithelial cells organized into taste in the tongue.
  6. Chemoreceptor cells for (smell) line the upper, mucus portion of the nasal cavity.
  7. Vertebrates eyes focus light by changing the shape of the .
  8. Signals from rods and cones travel from cells to cells, whose axons form the optic and transmit the signal to the brain.
    Review: Vertebrate eye
  9. Humans have an endoskeleton consisting of bones which are connected at by , and to muscles at .
  10. Skeletal muscles are attached to the skeleton in pairs.
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