Chapter 51 Animations   Study Guide

Unit 7: Animal Form and Function Animal Behavior Review
  1. Animal behavior may have ("how") and ("why") causation.
  2. Innate behaviors are determined and include simple movement such as , and , an oriented movement toward or away from a stimulus.
  3. A action pattern (FAP) is triggered by an external stimulus. More complex behaviors such as migration may also be largely genetically programmed.
  4. Animals communicate by using , behaviors that cause a change in another animal's behavior.
    • signals include that allow communication through .
    • signals control courtship behaviors of many insects and birds.
    • Some animals are capable of communication via complex movements.
  5. occurs when behaviors are modified based on specific experiences.
    • Repeated exposure to the same stimulus may lead to loss of responsiveness to that stimulus in a process called .
    • Many animals exhibit during an early stage of development called the (or critical) period.
    • learning takes place when animals associate one feature of their environment with another.
  6. Mating systems include , , and .
    • In many species, females choose their mate in a process called selection, or choice.
    • Males often for females in a process called selection that can variation among males and involve behavior.
  7. social behavior can be explained by fitness based on selection.
  8. The selective advantage of altruism can be quantified with rule: an individual can proliferate its by helping offspring of close relatives.

Chapter 52 Animations   Study Guide

Unit 8: Ecology An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere Review
  1. Ecology is the study of the interactions between and the environment, including both (nonliving) and (living) components.
  2. Biotic factors such as , , and other interactions among species can affect the distribution of organisms.
  3. factors that affect the distribution of organisms include sunlight, , wind, water, and soil.
  4. The angle of the sun changes due to the of the Earth, leading to climate changes every year.
  5. Large bodies of water have a effect on the climate of nearby terrestrial environments. Lakes experience seasonal in temperate regions.
  6. Mountains can block winds and cast a rain on the side.
  7. The biotic and abiotic factors determine the nature of broad associations, called .
  8. biomes are divided into and biomes based on , and stratified into by light penetration, temperature, and depth.
    Review: Aquatic Biomes
  9. biomes are largely determined by the and the types of vegetation adapted to the and of an area.
    Review: Terrestrial Biomes
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