Chapter 54 Animations   Study Guide

Unit 8: Ecology Community Ecology Review
  1. A is a collection of of various species that interact.
  2. Interspecific for limited results in each species occupying a unique ecological in the community due to competitive .
  3. Similar species can coexist in a community if they occupy different by resource .
  4. Competition may result in character , where certain characteristics exhibit more divergence between populations of two species than between populations of the same two species.
  5. Predation occurs when the kills and eats the prey.
  6. is an interspecific relationship where two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another.
    Review: interspecific relationships.
  7. The species of a community can be quantified by two measures: species and relative .
  8. The feeding relationships in a community make up its structure; its organisms often form a complex food .
  9. The diversity of some communities may depend on one species.
  10. Some organisms act as species by causing physical changes in the environment; some can act as of biodiversity in the community.
  11. Natural communities often experience periodic and undergo changes in diversity in a process called ecological .
  12. Species richness in many communities is affected by climatic factors such as and , which can be measured by evapotranspiration, as well as of the ecosystem.
  13. The diversity of isolated ecosystems can be predicted by the island model.

Chapter 55 Animations   Study Guide

Unit 8: Ecology Ecosystems Review
  1. An ecosystem consists of all the organisms in a , and all the abiotic factors with which they interact.
  2. Energy through ecosystems, while matter within them.
  3. Energy entering an ecosystem is converted to energy by primary , and can be quantified by productivity.
  4. production can be represented in a pyramid of .
  5. In most ecosystems, this low trophic efficiency is also reflected in a pyramid of .
  6. Chemicals released by humans can become in successive trophic levels in a process called magnification, becoming toxic to higher level consumers.
  7. The chemical nutrients between and reservoirs of ecosystems
    • The cycle is driven by solar energy on a global scale.
    • The cycle reflects the reciprocal processes of and cellular .
    • The cycle involves local cycles between organisms and soil or water.
    • The cycle is relatively localized.
  8. Excess fertilizer added to the soil can runoff into streams, and together with discharge, can lead to , excessive algal growth in aquatic ecosystems.
  9. Burning fossil fuels releases excess levels of carbon into the atmosphere, which is associated with global due to the effect.
  10. Combustion of fossil fuels also releases excess into the atmosphere, causing precipitation.
  11. The release of ( CFCs ) has resulted in depletion.
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