Chapter 39 Animations   Study Guide

Unit 6: Plant Form and Function Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals Review
  1. Plants can respond to stimuli in the environment in a process called .
  2. Pigments such as can sense light and regulate responses.
  3. The response involves signal of the stimulus, often involving a messenger to the signal.
  4. Several play important roles in regulating tropic responses.
    • are released by the meristem and at low concentrations stimulate cell in young developing shoots.
    • interact with auxin to stimulate cell division and , and also control dominance.
    • promote elongation, growth, and germination.
    • is produced in response to . A change in the balance of and ethylene controls leaf abscission.
  5. (geotropic) responses to gravity may be mediated by the settling of . Roots show gravitropism, while stems show gravitropism.
  6. responses to stimuli enable to coil their tendrils around supports. Touch can also affect plant morphology by .
  7. Plant defenses against include thorns and spines. Some plants even "recruit" for defense.

Chapter 40 Animations   Study Guide

Unit 7: Animal Form and Function Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function Review
  1. Animals, like other organisms, have that closely serve .
  2. Evolutionary reflects different species' independent to a similar environmental challenge.
  3. Animals must maintain adequate -to-volume ratio to exchange materials with the environment, and often have highly internal surfaces specialized for exchanging materials.
  4. Animal tissues are classified into four main categories.
    • Epithelial tissue cover the outside of the body and lines organs within the body.
    • Connective tissue bind and support other tissues.
    • Muscle tissue is composed of long cells called muscle capable of contracting in response to signals.
    • Nervous tissue sense stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal.
  5. Cellular produces the energy-containing molecules (Adenosine TriPhosphate), which powers cellular work.
  6. Animals maintain an internal temperature in a process called , which may consume a significant portion of its energy .
  7. In humans, is controlled by a region of the brain called the hypothalamus.
  8. Organisms exchange heat with the environment by four processes: , , , and .
    • The system provides insulation to reduce heat exchange with the environment.
    • Many marine mammals and birds have heat exchangers to reduce heat loss.
    • Animals can also thermoregulate by behaviors such as cooling, body , and .
  9. Some animals undergo a seasonal triggered by a long-term decrease in metabolism.
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